Lesson no. 10: sports vision

diciembre 12th, 2016 by verduset70


The evaluation, compensation and training of visual skills as well as visual protection and prevention system against ocular trauma, in order to enhance sport performance, or globally sports vision, is one of the most attractive competence of the future and current optometrist.

This field of the visual ergonomics, or environmental and occupational optometry, requieres to study the visual skills (following the Welford’s model) related to different sports, both collective and individual, with or without ball, tool, indoor vs. outdoor, etc. Only in this way, it should be feasible and efficient to evaluate them applying conventional and non-conventional optometric and psychophysical tests, in order to plan, adapt (following the sports vision pyramid) and monitor (with useful feedback) at qualitative and cuantitative levels different visual training activities, both for professional and amateur users, even young, adult or older.

Any visual training implemented in sport should be followed some general principles:

  • visual demands: distant vision always compensated;
  • visual ability: from isolated to integrated;
  • visual skill: from basic to complex;
  • simultaneous distractions / demands and cognitive processes
  • fast movements and reactions
  • non primary gazes or equilibrium positions
  • fatigue effect: phorias ­, visual field, VA , reaction time
  • etc.

Other issues interesting for any expert in sports vision can be those focused on the environment, as the lighting design, or eye protection, or even visual training by videogames, or applying neuroergonomic devices and visualisation tools.

The free task (no. 6) for this lesson is:

  • Relative Weight: 0 %
  • Individual Task:
    • Download the patent US 7963869 B2 (21st June 2011) “Chromatic architecture for sports equipment” by Nike, Inc.
  • Which is the main purpose of this patent?
  • Do you understand well all technical background?
  • What are the claims?

Lesson no. 9: vision and driving. Task no. 6

noviembre 29th, 2016 by verduset70


Driving a vehicle, land-type or not, is a complex visual task where many motor and visual functions are involved in, even coordinated with other senses, as touch in feet + hands + eye coordination.

In this lesson, the sinergy visual function and driving performance will be exhaustively analysed, covering sub-topics as the filter model of risk behavor and road accident control by Summala (1996),  some hazard perception tests and driver distraction, etc.

Moreover, the current harmonisation process of visual standards for driving licences in Europe will be also presented, including the new visual functions to be measured by optometrists as CSF, visual field, etc.

Other issues, but at secondary level, but perhaps interesting to be enlarged, are the conspicuity of traffic signs (CIE 137:2000), lighting design of roads, tunnels, etc., vehicle design (dashboard, automotive lighting, etc.), and non-terrestial vehicles, etc.

The proposed activity no. 6 is:

Relative Weight: 2,5 %

Delivery process by UA Cloud, section forum

Individual Task: download the RACE-Alain Afflelou reports (in Spanish):

  • Older drivers and traffic security
  • Visual protection in driving
  • Distractions
  • Night vision in driving
  • Ocular protection in airbag accidents
  • Vision and traffic security

1- Which of them do you consider as well explained at technical/optometric level?

2- Which do you like more?

3- What is the role for the optometrists in these reports?

Lesson no. 8: Displays

noviembre 14th, 2016 by verduset70

lesson_8_OAONowadays, and in a growing trend for this century, displays technologies are continuously used in daily and professional applications. But, the light-matter-brain interaction (or HCI) involved in this human activity can lead to several ocular and visual problems (Computer Vision Syndrome or CVS).

In this lesson we will see a definition for display, its history, the variety of current technologies, and the current and potential applications, even including 3D displays. In addition, the computer vision syndrome, initially proposed for 2D displays, will be analysed, even discussing what would the ideal or optimal display from the visual ergonomic point of view? For a better understanding about it, some concepts will be introduced on image generation and the interaction with the human visual system.

Later, a complete list of visual capabilities or functions involved in displays will be introduced and compared to evaluate the concept of visual comfort using 2D displays, including text and image legibility, joint to visual information intelligibility and usability for scientific visualisation, lighting conditions, and the UNE-EN-ISO 9241 normatives.

After that, all optometric variables related to prevent CVS for 2D displays will be introduced and discussed. And finally, with an own section, we will see the optometric variables involved in the visual fatigue using 3D displays.



Lesson no. 7: Hazards for visual and ocular injuries. Task no. 5

noviembre 4th, 2016 by verduset70



The worldwide occurrence of eye injuries is high, even in the Western countries. And in many countries there are state institutions for monitoring and proposing prevention mechanisms for this. In parallel way, it is important to know the different management systems and types of mechanical and non-mechanical ocular injuries, and hazards from toxicology on ocular and visual sides. Finally, a summary of current standards related to eye protection will be shown.

After this lesson, I have proposed the fifth task to be evaluated in this course.

  • Relative Weight: 2.5 %
  • Delivery process by UACloud, forum section, deadline for 2 weeks.
  • Individual Task
  • Download and read the next book chapter: “Toxic responses of the ocular and visual system”, by D.A. Fox & W.K. Boyes, from Casarett & Doull’s Essentials of Toxicology, 2nd edition (2010).
  • Which topics have been very surprised for you? Why?
  • What prevention mechanisms would you propose or improve by new research activities? Deadline: 23th November.

Lesson no. 6: Design of visual environment. Task no. 4

octubre 24th, 2016 by verduset70


CIE Colorimetry applied to light sources is a fundamental section in lighting design, both for indoor and outdoors applications. Correlated color temperature (Tc) and color rendering general index (Ra or Rb) are color quality parameters continously applied in many lighting applications, from conventional work sites (hospitals, shops, offices, etc) to computer graphics, videogames, digital cinema and even in virtual reality. Considering moreover the psychological effects of light and color, as color harmony or the Kruithof curve, any designer, visual ergonomics engineer, or optometrist should learn these scientific tools for efficiently applying them in different types of visual environments.

After this lesson, I have proposed the fourth task to be evaluated in this course.

  • Relative Weight: 5 %
  • Delivery process by UACloud platform, evaluation / practice delivery, deadline for 2 weeks.
  • Individual Task
  • Download the numerical exercises sheet no. 3
  • Read and solve the exercises no. 7-8 (Color temperature and rendering of two light sources).
  • Submit it using practice delivery tool by UACloud platform. Deadline: 15th November.