LA CARTA POBLA DE VILLAJOYOSA

                                 

Valencia

            Uno de los documentos más importantes que todo archivo municipal quisiera tener entre sus posesiones es el de la fundación de su urbe. Ya sea ex novo o cuando  este núcleo urbano pasa a otra categoría jurídica, por ejemplo, de poblado a villa, o de villa a ciudad. En el caso del municipio de Villajoyosa, el documento original en pergamino se ha perdido, sin embargo, se conservan copias sobre el contenido original que el Cronista Oficial del Pueblo, José Payà Nicolau encontró y que además publicaría por primera vez  en la Revista de Moros y Cristianos de l987.  En uno de sus escritos nos dice:

“…Al parecer Simeón Mayor, de Villajoyosa, había hecho una transcripción en 1772 y en l830 Juan Linares Esquerdo hizo una de su puño y letra, cotejando su propia copia con el pergamino del que la extrajo. Esto quería decir que, hasta ese año, los de la Vila disponían de un soporte en pergamino, aunque tampoco eso quisiera suponer que fuera el redactado en Murcia el 8 de mayo de  l300”

                                                                                              José Payà Nicolau

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Carta Puebla de Onda, Reproducción de la copia en pergamino de 1384 de l’Arxiu Municipal de Onda.

La Carta Pobla fue entregada a Villajoyosa por parte de Bernat de Sarrià, almirante del rey Jaume II  el 8 de mayo del año 1300, constituyéndose a partir de ese momento Villajoyosa como pueblo. El almirante aprovechó  la situación  de inestabilidad  política existente  para fundar una nueva población cristiana, a la que bautizo con el nombre de Vila Joiosa,  que quiere decir,  ciudad alegre. Fue repoblada con gentes de Cataluña y de Aragón, trayendo una nueva cultura y un nuevo idioma a una región con importantes núcleos de población morisca .

Copiar todo el documento, traducirlo  e intentar analizarlo sería una tarea muy larga, pero contamos con una transcripción resumida propuesta por E. Guinot Rodriguez (1991), que nos ayudara a entender lo más importante del documento:

 Nos en Bernat de Sarria, Conseller del Senyor Reg, é Procurador del Regne de Murcia donam a vos, tots et sengles pobladors de la nostra pobla de Villajolosa que hajats fur de Valencia é confermam la partido feyta a vosaltres per en Guillem Gilabert per tota la nostra Senyoria, puscats ab vostres besties, é bestiars Jpéxer la herba, é erbes, é tallar aqui fusta, lenya é lenyam; é fer aqui naus, galeres, leüts é barques que tota laygua Vall-arc, é deis atres lochs sia comprada axí com solía esser antigament partida en temps de Moros. Volem que sia terne appellat del dit loch de Villajoyosa així com parteix ab lo terme de Aygues, so es a saber del Alcantarella tro la mar é del Alcantarella així com es la senda davall la Mola tro al departiment del Cocó, segon es que les fites hi son possades per Arnau de Matará é deis alarifs deis moros é així com vessa aygua ves mar la Montanya que es sobre la torre de Orcheta, é com departeix terme de Finestrad ab la Alquería de encomes tro al terme del Alfas de Polop, é així com departeix terme lo dit Alfas de Polop ab Torres tro a la mar.Testimonis son de asó los nobles en Bernat de Vilamur, é Acart de Mur, el honrat Don Alfonso Peris de Xativa, é Guillem d’Entensa

En la primera parte, lo más importante es la asignación de los fueros de Valencia, que eliminan cualquier otra disposición jurídica anterior como pueda ser la costum.  En la mitad del texto trata la cuestión económica. (Punto importante a tratar  para que la nueva población sobreviva y pueda desarrollarse); entre otras cosas señala la necesidad de un embarcadero para hacer barcos. Y al final del documento encontramos los límites territoriales de la nueva población con la perfecta demarcación señorial  para no entrar en conflicto con otros núcleos de población de alrededor como Ifach

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Grabado de Villajoyosa que aparece en la Crónica de la ínclita y coronada ciudad de Valencia y de su reyno del cronista Rafael Martín de Viciana en 1564.
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