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3D modeling of the stratigraphic and structural architecture of the Crotone basin (southern Italiy) using machie learning with Python

The 3D modeling and representation of geological data have experienced significant growth within last years, due to the use of new technologies derived from advancements in land representation methods. These technologies enable interactive, intuitive and clear geological visualizations. This paper shows how, by using the open-source Python software (operable with a simple internet browser) for machine learning (linear and KNN interpolations), together with Geographic Information Systems (GIS), it is possible to achieve interactive 3D visualizations of geological features in sedimentary basins. This study is performed in the onshore-offshore Crotone area (southern Italy) where a large amount of stratigraphic datasets are available from core perforation and seismic profiles due to the presence of a natural gas extraction field. Thanks to a database of 63 drilling lithologic records and 43 check points obtained from 9 interpreted seismic sections, several 3D HTML models were constructed defining three stratigraphic units (Pre-Messinian, Messinian, and Post-Messinian). An overlap of the Post-Messinian top surface and an erosional truncation of the Messinian top surface toward the N were observed, together with a rising of the Pre-Messinian top surface in the northwestern area. This stratigraphic architecture may indicate differential subsidence and/or uplifting due to syn-sedimentary fault kinematics in the whole studied area. The 3D models with the stratigraphic unit boundary surfaces obtained with KNN interpolation (showing stepped and abrupt edges) allowed the interpretation in terms of structural architecture and synsedimentary fault kinematics. Three main sets of faults were deduced: N–S; NNW-SSE, and ENE-WSW. A minorly represented E-W set was added to the main sets. These faults generated a horsts-grabens structure, and in many cases a determinate set of faults caused a progressive lowering or rising of some areas with an “en echelon” arrangement. According to previous works, these deduced sets of faults (most of them strike-slip faults) have a good agreement with the general structural architecture and defined faults in the area.

Vertical sections obtained with KNN interpolation and exported as png files with sketch index map in the right-up corner. A to E) sections A to E.

Cite as: Falsetta, E., Bullejos, M., Critelli, S. and Martín-Martín M. (2024). 3D modeling of the stratigraphic and structural architecture of the Crotone basin (southern Italy) using machine learning with Python. Marine and Petroleum Geology 164 (2024) 106825. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2024.106825