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New biostratigraphic data on the Paleocene-Eocene from the Prebetic

A biostratigraphic study of the Paleocene-Eocene of the stratigraphically continuous with the northern foreland (Iberian Meseta), Prebetic has been studied by using planktonic foraminifera, calcareous nannoplankton, and larger benthic foraminifera. Twelve sections have been studied along the chain: four sections in the Alicante Sector, four in the Murcia Sector, two in the Granada Sector, and two sections in the Jaén Sector.

The Paleocene-Eocene Prebetic succession can be divided into three stratigraphic formations related by lateral and diachronic changes of facies: limestones and calcarenites (rich in larger benthic foraminifera) in middle stratigraphic position, and two marly-clayey formations in lower and upper positions, respectively. The middle unit represents an internal marine platform, while the two marly-clayey represent the external platform (and the upper slope in a few cases). As a whole, above the unconformity, representing the missing interval which includes the Cretaceous-Paleocene boundary.

Nummulites sections in an Eocene limestone near Onil (Alicante).

Cite as: Martín-Martín, M., Miclăuș, C., Serrano, F., Tosquella, J., Samsó, J.M., Tent-Manclús, J.E., and Martín-Pérez, J.A. (2023): New biostratigraphic data on the Paleocene-Eocene succession from the Prebetic domain (Betic Cordillera: South Spain).Abstract Book, Fourteenth Romanian Symposium on Palaeontology, Bucharest, 14-15 September 2023 / Zoltán Csiki-Sava, Alina Floroiu, Maria-Raluca Văcărescu, Iuliana Lazăr – Bucureşti : Editura Universităţii din Bucureşti -Bucharest University Press, 2023, 79-80 p.

The Eocene carbonate platforms of the Ghomaride Domain (Internal Rif Zone, N Morocco): a segment of the westernmost Tethys

The Eocene platform deposits in the Moroccan Ghomarides have been studied. These marine carbonate platforms were located in the westernmost Tethys approximately 30°N and 0°–10°W during the Cuisian to Bartonian. The study includes observations from fossiliferous assemblages (such as larger benthic foraminifera and colonial corals), their palaeoenvironment aswell as rock texture and fabric. Eight microfacieswere identified that represent different ramp environments in a ‘distally-steepened carbonate ramp’ type of platform. The studied deposits are organised into a transgressive succession composed of three sedimentary cycles: lower Cuisian, middle Cuisian and middle Lutetian to Bartonian. In the lower cycle, photic inner to mid ramp environments in mesotrophic conditions were prevalent. In the second cycle, photic inner ramp (sea-grass) to mid ramp environments inmesotrophic to oligotrophic conditions were observed. The upper cycle, which is more extensive and variable, represents mesophotic mid ramp to aphotic slope environments and changes gradually from oligotrophic to eutrophic conditions. During the Eocene, larger benthic foraminifera were dominant overtaking the zooxanthellate corals in the Tethys regions. Nevertheless, our study and the performed comparison with other Tethyan sectors have revealed that in some areas both coexisted in similar proportions. In some western Tethys regions close to the Atlantic Ocean, coinciding with areas influenced by upwelling currents, larger benthic foraminifera and coral build-ups were replaced by oyster reefs. The Ghomaride Domain represents an intermediate case between fossil assemblages of the northern Tethyan margin and eastern sector of the southern margin of the Tethys, with a dominance of larger benthic foraminifera but with a certain presence of corals as well. A good correlation exists between Eocene warm intervals and carbonate platform deposits in these domains. Contrarily, during cooling ones shallowing and gaps in the sedimentation are registered.

A synthetic column of the Eocene Ghomaride succession, highlighting the correlation with transgressive–regressive depositional trends, terrigenous-nutrient inputs, sedimentary environments, photic and trophic conditions and main biotic assemblages.

Two anomalies have been detected in the Ghomaride Domain during Ypresian and Bartonian times indicating particular climatic conditions or local tectonic interferences.

Cite as: Martín-Martín, M., Tosquella, J., Guerrera, F., Maaté, A., Hlila, R., Maaté, S., Tramontana, M., Le Breton, E., 2023. The Eocene carbonate platforms of the Ghomaride Domain (Internal Rif Zone, N Morocco): a segment of the westernmost Tethys. Sediment. Geol. 452, 106423. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sedgeo.2023.106423

Eocene carbonate platform of the Malaguides of the westermost Tethys

 The Eocene Peñicas (Almería) and Harania (Málaga) stratigraphic sections from the Malaguide Complex (Betic Cordillera, South Spain) belonging to the Mesomediterranean Microplate from the westernmost Tethys (about  35◦N) have been studied. The Eocene sections cover the Cuisian to middle Lutetian deposits, which show several lithofacies representing shallow marine platform realms. Based on the fossiliferous assemblage, texture and fabrics, eight microfacies related to inner to outer ramp settings were defined. In the inner ramp of the Harania section abundant colonial corals have been recognized. The Eocene deposits are arranged into a transgressive succession composed by three minor transgressive-regressive sedimentary cycles. The Eocene fossiliferous assemblage shows a mixture of photozoan (Larger Bentic Foraminifera, green and red calcareous algae and corals) and heterotrophic (mollusks, echinoids, bryozoans, small benthic and planktic foraminifers) elements, suggesting euphotic to mesophotic conditions in oligo-mesotrophic marine warm-waters at low-middle latitudes. This assemblage indicates a transition from photozoan to heterozoan carbonates and in particular a shift towards outer marine ramp settings.

Paleogeographic and paleoenvironmental 3D-sketch model of the Central-Western Malaguides with location of facies and microfacies during the Eocene.

During the Early Eocene, the widespread distribution of Larger Benthic Foraminifera leads in the Tethyan domains to disappearance or extreme reduction of coral constructions. Nevertheless, abundant corals associated to inner ramp realms have been observed in the Harania stratigraphic section indicating that corals could continue to develop in the westernmost Tethys at the transition to the Atlantic Ocean, in contrast with respect to other Tethyan sectors. Therefore, the Ypresian-Lutetian time-span is a transitional period for the global temperature during which corals locally survived only where optimal ecologic conditions occurred, preferably in marginal contexts, as it seems to have happened in the studied area. 

Cite as: Tosquella, J., Martín-Martín, M., Guerrera, F., Serrano, F., Tramontana, M., 2022. The Eocene carbonate platform of the central-western Malaguides (Internal Betic Zone, S Spain) and its meaning for the Cenozoic paleogeography of the westermost Tethys. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 589, 110840. doi: 10.1016/j.palaeo.2022.110840

Middle Eocene carbonate platforms of the westernmost Tethys

A study of the paleoenvironmental evolution of the middle Eocene platforms recognized in the westernmost Tethys has been carried out in the well exposed middle Eocene succession from Sierra Espuña-Mula basin (Betic Cordillera, S Spain). Eight microfacies (Mf1 to Mf8) have been recognized, based mainly on fossil assemblages (principally larger benthic foraminifera), and rock texture and fabric.

Environmental microfacies distribution for the Middle Eocene marine Depositional Sequence 2 (Malvariche andCánovas fms) in Sierra Espuña, arranged from proximal to distal depositional environments: Mf3, Inner ramp lagoon, upper subtidal environment; Mf5, Inner ramp seagrass, euphotic subtidal environment; Mf6 – Mf7, Inner ramp, euphotic lower subtidal environment; Mf2, Proximal middle ramp LBF accumulations (nummulitids), mesophotic environment; Mf1, Proximal middle ramp maërl, mesophotic environment; Mf8, Distal middle ramp LBF accumulations (orthophragminids), mesophotic environment; Mf4, Outer ramp lacking Large Bethic Foraminifera (LBF), oligophotic environment. Ramp subdivision is based on Burchette and Wright (1992), and photic zones are analogous to those described by Pomar et al. (2017), with a ‘mesophotic zone’ comprised between lower limit of occurrence of marine vegetation and the storm wave base (swb).


The fossiliferous assemblage can be asigned to the ‘subtropical’ heterozoan association or to the low-latitude ‘foralgal facies’ , which are dominated by non-framework building, light-dependent biota such as perforate larger benthic foraminifera, coralline algae, and sometimes green algae and solitary corals. Larger benthic foraminifer assemblages, corresponding from euphotic to oligophotic conditions and the large surface showed, suggest a progressive marine ramp under essentially oligotrophic conditions. Eventually, supply of detrital sediments from the continent and/or upwelling currents increasse the nutrients of marine waters. Comparision with other Tethyan sectors allows stating that coral-reef buildups (z-corals) were widespread on shallow platforms of the central and eastern Tethys Ocean, but that these were neither of great dimensions nor dominant because of the much more dominant presence of larger benthic foraminifera. Moreover, these coral constructions were completely absents in the westernmost Tethys. The dominance of larger benthic foraminifera and the absence of z-corals in the westernmost Tethys is explained by particular paleogeographic features due to the occurrence of a narrow and deep oceanic branch (i.e., the Maghrebian Flysch Basin) connecting the Tethys with the Atlantic Ocean.

Biochronostratigraphic chart with numerical time scale, magnetochrons, magnetic polarity, planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton zones based on GTS 2012 (Gradstein and Ogg, 2012), correlated with shallow benthic zones (SBZ). Interpretations of main climatic events, trophic resources continuum, LBF specific diversity and coral events in the Tethyan domain are also represented. A synthetic column with the stratigraphic formations and the main trophic conditions and Large Bethic Foraminifera (LBF) and coral (*) events of the Sierra Espuña-Mula Basins are also included.

The various issues regarding the morphological characters and evolution of larger benthic foraminifera in the study area, such as sizes of tests, specific diversity and/or intraspecific variability, number of appearances and last occurrences during the middle Eocene are analyzed and compared with those appearing in other Tethyan sectors. In addition, the early to late Bartonian boundary is recognized in the study area as critical for the biological change as in other shallow-marine environments along the Tethys margins.

Cite as: Martín-Martín, M., Guerrera, F., Tosquella, J., Tramontana, M., 2021. Middle Eocene carbonate platforms of the westernmost Tethys. Sediment. Geol. 415, 105861. doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2021.105861