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This paper introduces a Python application for visualizing an imbricate thrust system. The application uses the traditional geologic information to create an HTML geological map with real topography and a set of geological cross-sections with the essential structural and stratigraphic elements. On the basis of the high geological knowledge gained during the last three decades, the Palomeque sheets affecting the Cenozoic Malaguide succession in the Internal Betic Zone (SE Spain) were selected to show the application. In this area, a Malaguide Cretaceous to Lower Miocene succession is deformed as an imbricate thrust system, with two thrusts forming a duplex, affected later by a set of faults with a main strike-slip kinematic. The modeled elements match well with the design of the stratigraphic intervals and the structures reported in recent scientific publications. This proves the good performance of this Python application for visualizing the structural and stratigraphic architecture. This kind of application could be a crucial stage for future groundwater, mining, and civil engineering management.
Cite as: Bullejos, M., Martín-Martín, M., 2023. A Python Application for Visualizing an Imbricate Thrust System: Palomeque Duplex (SE, Spain). Geosciences. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences13070207
Supplementary Materials: The following supporting information can be downloaded at: https://www. mdpi.com/article/10.3390/geosciences13070207/s1: interactive 3D geological map: 3D_Palomeque_map_sections.html; interactive 3D geological sections: 3D_Palomeque_map_sections.html. Python codes and the detailed instructions to download and run the codes can be found in a GitHub repository at: https://github.com/bullejos/visualizing-an-imbricate-thrust-system.
This paper introduces a methodology based on Python libraries and machine learning k-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) algorithms to create an interactive 3D HTML model (3D_Vertical_Sections_Faults_LRD.html) that combines 2D grain-size KNN-prediction vertical maps (vertical sections) from which syn-sedimentary faults and other features in sedimentary porous media can be delineated. The model can be visualized and handled with conventional web browsers. The grain-size physical parameter is measurable, constant over instrumental time, handleable mathematically, and its range can be associated to lithological classes. Grain-size input data comes from a public database of 433 boreholes in the Llobregat River Delta (LRD) in NE Spain. Four lithological classes were defined: Pre-Quaternary basement, and Quaternary gravel, sand, and clay–silt. Using a new KNN-prediction algorithm, seven NW–SE (transversal) and three SW–NE (longitudinal) vertical sections were created following the orientation of faults identified in surface and detected in reflection seismic geophysical surveys. For exploratory K values in the 1–75 range were used. K around 25 provides the general and smoothy shape of the basement top surface, whereas K = 1 is a optimal value to represent the heterogeneity of the LRD at short distance. Using a new KNN-prediction confidence algorithm inspired in the Similarity Ratio algorithm for machine-learning KNN, the vertical sections overall confidence was evaluated as satisfactory. A general decreasing confidence trend according to the decreasing data density with depth and from inland to seaward was found. The vertical sections created with K = 1 show horizontal interruptions (displacements or vertical steps) in the basement continuity and in the Quaternary coarse bodies (gravel and sand) attributable to the action of Quaternary active faults. These faults have been linked or correlated with well-known active faults in the area related in much cases with the Valencia Trough opening. Moreover, several faults detected in surface and other identified in this paper by the first time have been revealed as fault zones made of fault branches with different steps in an echelon-like arrangement.
Faulting seems to be more evident in the Pleistocene Lower Detrital Complex and much less active or inactive in the Holocene Upper Detrital Complex. Syn-tectonic gravel channels faulty controlled, progradation of gravel lobes, and lateral migration of channel bars were also observed. At its current development stage, this methodology could also be applied to other geological environments, making the due minor modifications of the code, and is especially suitable to reduce the high (usually unmeasurable) uncertainty associated to the qualitative geological data used in more complex numerical tools aimed at modelling a lot of geological resources (groundwater, minerals, geothermal, petroleum) or different Earth phenomena.
Cite as: Martín-Martín, M., Bullejos, M., Cabezas, D., Alcalá, F. J., (2023). Using python libraries and k-Nearest neighbors algorithms to delineate syn-sedimentary faults in sedimentary porous media. Marine and Petroleum Geology, 153. 106283. doi: 10.1016/j.marpetgeo.2023.106283
The k-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm is a non-parametric supervised machine learning classifier; which uses proximity and similarity to make classifications or predictions about the grouping of an individual data point. This ability makes the KNN algorithm ideal for classifying datasets of geological variables and parameters prior to 3D visualization. This paper introduces a machine learning KNN algorithm and Python libraries for visualizing the 3D stratigraphic architecture of sedimentary porous media in the Quaternary onshore Llobregat River Delta (LRD) in northeastern Spain. A first HTML model showed a consecutive 5 m-equispaced set of horizontal sections of the granulometry classes created with the KNN algorithm from 0 to 120 m below sea level in the onshore LRD. A second HTML model showed the 3D mapping of the main Quaternary gravel and coarse sand sedimentary bodies (lithosomes) and the basement (Pliocene and older rocks) top surface created with Python libraries. These results reproduce well the complex sedimentary structure of the LRD reported in recent scientific publications and proves the suitability of the KNN algorithm and Python libraries for visualizing the 3D stratigraphic structure of sedimentary porous media, which is a crucial stage in making decisions in different environmental and economic geology disciplines.
Interactive figures here
Cite as: Bullejos, M., Cabezas, D., Martín-Martín, M., Alcalá, F.J., 2022. A K-Nearest Neighbors Alborithm in Python for Visualizing the 3D Stratigraphic Architecture of the Llobregat River Delta in NE Spain. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse10070986