## Archive for the “Aims” Category

Chapter 11. INTERNAL FORCES IN STRUCTURAL MEMBERS: ISOSTATIC PLANE BEAMS

11.1 Isostatic beams. Introduction.

11.2 Reactions at supports.

11.3 Types of loads on beams.

11.4 Internal forces in beams. Sign convention.

11.5 Loads, shears and axial forces.

11.6 Bending moments.

11.7 Graphical analysis of a beam.

11.8 Elastic curve of a beam.

You should learn to solve any isostatic plane beam after the theoretical lectures, the problem sessions and the homework you did during this part of the subject. Chapter objectives can be  summarized as follows:

• To show how to use the method of sections to determine the internal loadings in a member.
• To generate this procedure by formulating equations that can be plotted so that they describe the internal shear and moment throughout a member.
• To draw the shear and moment diagrams for any isostatic plane beam.

The next video explains how to solve a beam using the method of sections (Spanish from a Professor at the Universitat Politècnica de València).

Bibliography

Rodes Roca, J. J., Durá Doménech, A. i Vera Guarinos, J., Fonaments físics de les construccions arquitectòniques (Publicacions de la Universitat d’Alacant, Alacant, 2011). Capítol 12.

Rodes Roca, J. J., Exercicis i problemes dels fonaments físics d’arquitectura. I. Vectors lliscants i geometria de masses (ECU, Alacant, 2009)

Rodes Roca, J. J. i Durá Doménech, A., Exercicis i problemes dels fonaments físics d’arquitectura. II. Estàtica aplicada a les estructures (Col·lecció Joan Fuster 154, Universitat d’Alacant, 2013)

Tipler, P. A. i Mosca, G., Física per a la ciència i la tecnologia, Volum 1 (Reverté, Barcelona, 2010). Capítols 1 i 12.

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Chapter 10. INTERNAL FORCES IN STRUCTURAL MEMBERS: PLANE TRUSSES.

10.1 Plane trusses. Introduction.

10.2 Assumptions made in truss analysis.

10.3 Isostatic and hyperstatic systems.

10.4 Method of joints.

10.5 Method of Maxwell-Cremona.

10.6 Method of Ritter or sections.

You should learn to solve any plane truss after the theoretical lectures, the problem sessions and the homework you did during this part of the subject.

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A rigid body is said to in equilibrium if the resultant of all forces and all their moments taken about any and all points are zero.

Free body diagram (FBD): depiction of an object with ALL the external forces acting on it.

Reactions coming from the supports: usually a body is constrained against motions using supports. It is essentially to correctly estimate the number and type of reactions that a support can provide.

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This entry help you to prepare laboratory reports for all general science and engineering at PUC-EPS-UA. It describes the structure of a good laboratory report, outlines the different sections of the report, and explains the need for each of them. It also introduces some standard conventions and rules for writing reports of professional quality.

Laboratory reports will be graded not only for technical content but also for writing and style. The quality of your written report will strongly affect your grade for the course. Students are required to follow the general rules in this entry and the specific format instructions given to them by their laboratory instructor.

You can read a complete guide to laboratory report writing here or here (see below a copy) and an example here. Just you need to adapt this rules to our course.

# General Outline of a Laboratory Report

Scientific writing is just as important as scientific investigation or experimenting. Although the major part of scientific investigation takes place in the laboratory–connecting equipment together, repairing, obtaining supplies and samples, checking each apparatus for consistency, calibration, and finally data collection by running the experiment—a great deal of time is spent to present the results in a concise, objective, critical and conclusive format called laboratory report (similar to research paper). Therefore, a well-organized laboratory report is much more effective and influential than one without a structure. There is no short list of instructions for writing a good laboratory report. You may have only one chance to influence your reader. While ineffective writing can turn off the readers, a well-written laboratory report can have impacts on your reputation, chance of employment or promotion. You may also draw the attention of the scientific community to your work and retain them as your readers.

Sections of a laboratory report:

A laboratory report usually have several sections identified by titles. A typical report would include such sections as TITLE, INTRODUCTION, PROCEDURE, RESULTS, and DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION. If you are using a computer to type your work, section headings should be in boldface.

Title:

The title can usually draw attention of the reader to your work. It should clearly represent the work presented. If the purpose of the experiment is to measure the gravitational acceleration of the earth using pendulum as the experimental apparatus, the title should be like “ Measurement of the Gravitational Acceleration Using Simple Pendulum”. Avoid “The” as the first word in the title for it will lead to misleading searches when one uses the database.

Introduction:

State the purpose of the experiment in general terms. For example, “ It is possible to measure the gravitational acceleration using the oscillations of a simple pendulum.”

Review the existing information or the theory. Reader will look for some reminder of the basic information relating to this particular area. This can be done by giving him/her a brief summary of the existing state of knowledge. We can also include a summary of earlier work with proper references.

Supply a paragraph or two about how the basic information, such as an equation representing the behavior of a model (theory), can be used to make measurements.

Procedure:

Indicate what parameter or properties of the system you are measuring. Usually you change a parameter of the system (such as changing the temperature, independent variable), and measure its effect (such as the length of a metal rod, dependent variable).

Specify such measurement details as the type of standard or instrument used to make the measurement (for example, meter stick or vernier calliper, etc). Give the instrument uncertainties. For example, if we are using a meter stick, we can say, “ the length of the rod is measured using a laboratory meter stick accurate to within 1 cm. You may also give, if necessary, an apparatus diagram.

Results:

• Provide tables showing your measurement with units.
• Describe the uncertainties: standard, instrument, random errors
• Provide graphs. Graphs should be neat, clear, and include the axis label and units.
• Computation of the final answer: slope calculation, averages, and standard deviations all in proper significant figures.

Discussions/Conclusions:

• Present your findings from the experiment.
• Evaluate the outcome objectively, taking a candid and unbiased point of view. Suppose that the outcome is not close to what you expected. Even then, after checking your results, give reasons why you believe that outcome is not consistent with the expected. Make it plain, simple. Make factual statements such as “graph 1 shows a linear variation of velocity with time”.
• State the discrepancies between the experimental results and the model (theory), and discuss the sources of the differences in terms of the errors by offering logical inferences.
• Suggest improvements

Although these do not make an exhaustive list of do’s or don’ts, they nevertheless offer a framework around which one can write an effective report. In our experiment, some of the items indicated under each section may not be needed. I will give you more feedback in class. I expect that, the lab reports, either typed or handwritten, should be neat, clear, and organized. Points will be deducted for these, as well as for missing units and failing to follow the outline (i.e. title, introduction, procedure, results, conclusion) given above.

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Welcome to the course blog of Physics I: Fundamentals of Structures which is a subject of the degree in Technical Architecture. We assume in this course you have taken mathematics and physics before you are starting this course. However, we will not assume that you remember everything you did previously, so do not panic!!!! We will begin with a very brief review of magnitudes, the International System of Units (SI), and vectors. There are two extremely important vectorial magnitudes in your degree, the force and the moment of a force.

We highly recommend to download the course material from this link. Unfortunately, its were written in Catalan/Valencian, but we will try to update this material to English during this semester. All documents are in acrobat format and you can find slides for theoretical classes, exercises both proposed and solved, slides for laboratory sessions, and so on.

The best way to learn physics is solving problems and asking for doubts or understanding physics concepts. We wrote two books about this topic, i.e. problems solved in detail, but the format is prepared to learn yourself. Therefore, we also suggest to download it from this link. You also can check the volume I in this link. Again, these books were written in Catalan/Valencian.

TUTORIAL HOURS:

On Thursdays from 11:00 to 15:00 in my office. Feel free to ask for an appointment by Campus Virtual if the timetable is not suit to you.

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